CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Revised Syllabus 2022-23
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus: Chemistry is a very important subject that teaches us useful skills. Students opt for Chemistry to pursue their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology, and study courses in applied areas of science and technology at the tertiary level. Chemistry Paper Code is 043. The theory will contain 70 Marks and 30 Marks for Practical.
Chemistry (Code No. 043)
Class XII (2022 -23) (THEORY)
Theory: 70 Marks
Time: 3 Hours
Unit II: Solutions (7 Marks)
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult’s law, colligative properties – the relative lowering of vapor pressure, the elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Can’t Hoff factor.
Unit III: Electrochemistry (9 Marks)
Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics (7 Marks)
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations, and half-life (only for zero and first-order reactions), the concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements (7 Marks)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states, and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds (7 Marks)
Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, the importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (6 Marks)
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only). Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers (6 Marks)
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids (8 Marks)
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, the reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Amines (6 Marks)
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions, and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules (7 Marks)
Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
Proteins: Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, the structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Hormones: Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins: Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Note: The content indicated in NCERT textbooks as excluded for the year 2022-23 is not to be tested by schools.
Practical: 30 Marks
Time: 3 Hours
Micro-chemical methods are available for several practical experiments.
Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.
A. Surface Chemistry
- Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol
- Lyophilic sol – starch, egg albumin and gum
- Lyophobic sol – aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.
- Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.
- Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils.
B. Chemical Kinetics
Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.
Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
- Reaction of Iodide ion with Hydrogen Peroxide at room temperature using different concentrations of Iodide ions.
- Reaction between Potassium Iodate, (KIO3) and Sodium Sulphite: (Na2SO3) using starch solution as an indicator (clock reaction).
Any one of the following experiments:
- Enthalpy of dissolution of Copper Sulphate or Potassium Nitrate.
- Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).
- Determination of enthaply change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between Acetone and Chloroform.
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+||Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4 ) at room temperature.
- Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
- Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having a large difference in Rf values to be provided).
F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate of Potash Alum. Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.
G. Preparation of Organic Compounds
Preparation of any one of the following compounds:
- Di -benzalAcetone
- p – Nitroacetanilide
- Aniline yellow or 2 – Naphthol Anilinedye.
H. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, and amino (Primary) groups.
I. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given foodstuffs.
J. Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
- Oxalic acid,
- Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
K. Qualitative analysis
Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt
Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Aℓ3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+
(CO3)2-, S2-, (SO3)2-, (NO2)– , (SO4)2-, Cℓ–, Br–, I–, (PO4)3-, (C2O4)2-, CH3COO–, NO–3
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. A few suggested Projects:
- Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
- Study the quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
- Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with natural milk concerning curd formation, the effect of temperature, etc.
- Study of the effect of Potassium Bisulphate as a food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time, etc.)
- Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.
- Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of the following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice, etc.
- Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), and Illaichi (cardamom).
Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.